Windows – Host File Location

Occasionally, I need to update the windows hosts files, but I seem to have a permanent memory block where the file is located. I have written the location into numerous documents, however, every time I need to verify and or up the host file I need to look up the path. Today, when I went to look it up I discovered that I had not actually posted it to this blog site. So, for future reference, I am adding it now.

Here is the path of the Windows Hosts file, the drive letter may change depending on the drive letter on which the Windows install was performed.

C:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\etc

New CentOS 8 Linux Release

The new CentOS 8 rebuild is out. Christened version 8.0-1905, this release provides a secure, stable and a more reliable foundation for CentOS users such as organizations running high-performance websites and businesses with Linus experts that use CentOS daily for their workloads, but who do not need strong commercial support.

The new OS comes in after Red Hat released RHEL 8 – Red Hat Enterprise Linux – in May of this year. According to CentOS 8 release notes, the contributors note that this rebuild is 100% compliant with Red Hat’s redistribution policy. This Linux distro allows users to achieve successful operations using the robust power of an enterprise-class OS, but without the cost of support and certification. Below are some of the updates as outlined in CentOS 8 release notes that you can expect with this new release and some of the deprecated features.

What’s New in the Just Released CentOS 8?

  • BaseOS and Appstream
  • New container tools
  • Systemwide crypto policies
  • TCP stack improvements
  • DNF

· BaseOS and Appstream

The main repository or Base Operating System offers the components of distribution that in turn provide the running user space on the hardware, virtual machines, or even a container. The Application Stream or App stream offers all the apps you might want to run in particular user space. The Supplemental repository offers software that comes with special licensing.

· New Container Tools

With the aid of Podman, CentOS 8 supports Linux Containers. This replaces Docker and Mobdy, which depend on daemon and run as root. Unlike the previous release, the Podman in the new version does not depend on daemon. Podman allows users to create images from scratch using Buildah.

· Systemwide Crypto Policies

The command “update crypto policies” can be used to update the system-wide cryptographic policy on the new OS. The policies have settings for the following applications and libraries; NSS TLS library, Kerberos 5 library, Open SSH SSH2 protocol implementation, IKE protocol implementation & Libreswan IPsec, Open SSL TLS library and GnuTLS TLS library.

· TCP Stack Improvements

The CentOS 8 Linux distro also brings with it TCP stack version 4.16 with an improved ingress connection rate. The Linux kernel is now able to support the new BBR and NV control algorithms. This is very helpful in helping improve the Linux server internet speed.

· DNF – Dandified Yum

The new Operating System includes the basic foundations of the Yum package but is now upgraded to the DNF (Dandified Yum). Though it maintains a similar command-line interface and API to its predecessor, it does promise to be faster, seamless and super-efficient.

· Other Improvements

The CentOS also has a compiler based on the version 8.2 and includes support for more recent C ++ language standard versions, improved optimizations, more code, and hardening techniques as well as new hardware support and better warnings.

In addition to those features, the new CentOS 8 also supports secure guests, which using cryptographically signed images will ensure that the program retains its integrity. It also boasts of improved management of memory and support. CentOS 8 release notes state that the new OS will allow the Crash dump to take in kernel crash during all booting phases which were not possible before.

CentOS 8 gives encrypted storage to LUKS2. It also allows for enhancements made to the process scheduler to include the new deadline process scheduler. This Linux distro will also enable installations and boot from dual-in-line, non-volatile memory modules.

A great bonus feature is that you can manage the new software with Cockpit via a web browser. This feature is very user-friendly, making it great for system administrators and new users alike.

Deprecated Features and Functionalities

If you are upgrading from previous CentOS versions, the most significant change is seen in the nftables framework which has replaced iptables. Nfatables allows users to perform network address translation (NAT) mangling, packet classification, and packet filtering. Unlike iptables, nfatables helps to provide secure firewall support with enhanced performance, increased scalability, and easy code maintenance.

These changes, though not major, may cause problems with firewall functionality. Although upgrades using RHEL may be supported, it is not advisable to upgrade directly from much older versions of CentOS like CentOs 6 and below as they may not be compatible.

Users of CentOS as a desktop will see an update of the GNOME SHELL default interface to version 3.28, while still carrying the default display server as Wayland.

Final Thoughts

If you are looking to upgrade from previous versions, a system to do so directly is yet to be released. As such, your most favorable option would be to back up your data as you install the newly released CentOS 8. When it is up and running, you can then move all the data to the new system.

Nonetheless, the new CentOS 8 Linux release is an exciting feat. This OS provides a manageable and consistent platform that suits a wide variety of deployments. It comes with well-thought-out and ingenious software updates that will help avid users to build more robust container workloads and web apps.

Linux man (manual) Command

Despite the ‘man’ commands, relative simplicity and appearance of unimportance, the ‘man’ command is, perhaps, one of the most important commands to lean in Linux. 

Why the ‘man’ command important?

The true value of the ‘man’ command is that provides access to the online manuals (documentation), which will be consulted often until Linux commands and functions have to be learned and internalized.  Even after learning the more familiar and commonly used Linux command and functions, one will still need to refer the less commonly used capabilities or to confirm something which has been used in a while.

When some the more arrogant Linux users will sometime tell folks with questions to “read the frickin’ manual” (RTFM), the ‘man’ command is what they are usually talking about.  Although there are other perfectly useful reference materials online (e.g., git documentation project) or commercial books, the ‘man’ command should be the go-to place for documentation.  The reason this is actually very simple, if the command or function is installed in your version or environment instance of Linux, then man pages will be available.  Therefore, usually, there will no need to go search on the internet for answers or carrying books around.

The ‘man’ command syntax

The syntax of the ‘man’ command is simple and easy to learn to use.  In fact, the ‘man’ command is so easy to use that people frequently will not even use options when they use the man command and enter ‘man’ command and the keyword.

‘man’ command syntax

man [options] (keywords)

Simple examples to illustrate how to use the ‘man’ command.

Example to pull up the ‘Man’ command documentation

[blog-server ~]$ man man

In this example, the man command is using ‘man man’ to pull up its own online documentation.

Example to pull up the ‘ls’ command documentation

[blog-server ~]$ man ls

In this example, the man command is using ‘man ls’ to pull up the ‘list directory contents‘ online documentation.

list directory contents

Example to pull up the ‘cp’ command documentation

[blog-server ~]$ man cp

In this example, the man command is using ‘man cp’ to pull up the ‘copy files and directories ‘ online documentation.

Example screenshot of the ‘cp’ (copy files and directories) file command online documentation

How to install locate command in Linux Redhat and Centos

To install the locate command (mlocate) in Redhat or Centos, use the ’YUM’ command, install function. 

  • Logon as ‘root’ or use with ‘sudo’ permissions
  • Then, run a ’man’ command to confirm that the locate command is not already installed: ‘man locate’

Example ‘man’ command (as root user)

[root@blog-server ~]# man locate

  • If the ’man’ documentation page returns, then it is already installed.  If no ’man’ documentation page is returned, then run the ‘yum install’ command.
  • Run the ‘yum install’ command as ‘root’ or ‘sudo’ user:

Example ‘yum install’ command (as root user)

[root@blog-server ~]# yum install mlocate

Example ‘yum install’ command (as sudo user)

[root@blog-server ~]# sudo yum install mlocate

Then run the [root@data-server ~]# updated

Example Run ‘updatedb’ Command (as Root user)

[root@blog-server ~]# updated

Example Run ‘updatedb’ Command (as sudo user)

[root@blog-server ~]# sudo updatedb

How To quit the Linux vi editor without saving changes

To quit the Linux ’vi’ editor without saving any changes which have been made:

To Exit the insert or append mode

  1. From within insert or append mode, press the ‘Esc‘ key.

To Enable VI Command Line

  1. Press the ‘:’ (colon) Key. The cursor should reappear in the lower-left corner of the screen beside a colon prompt.
  2. Then, Enter the ‘q!’ Command and press the ‘Enter’ Key.

Example VI Command Line

: q!

This will quit the Linux VI editor, and all changes the document made in this session will be lost.

Linux Move (mv) Command

The Linux move command (mv) is one of the essential commands, which can be very useful in Linux, Unix, and AIX.  The primary purpose of the move command is obviously to move files, and of course, directories.   The move command may also be used to rename files and to make backups.

Move Command Syntax

$ mv [options] source (file or directory)  destination

Move Command options

option description
mv -f force move by overwriting destination file without prompt
mv -i interactive prompt before overwriting
mv -u update – move when the source is newer than the destination
mv -v verbose – print source and destination files
MV – t explicitly saying to move the file or directory here, rather trying to fit everything into the last argument.
mv * Move all (Multiple) files to a specific director without listing by name

For More move command details see the Linux documentation manuals using the man command

$ man mv

mv command examples

Here are some quick and very simple move command (MV) examples for reference.

Move Move to files  to the /Archive/ directory:

$ mv happy.txt garden.txt /Archive/

Move all “.txt” files in the current directory to subdirectory backup:

$ mv *.txt backup

Move all files in subdirectory ‘backup’ to current directory:

$ mv backup/*

Rename file happy.txt to happy.bak filename:

$ mv happy.txt happy.bak

Rename directory backup to backup2:

$ mv backup backup2

Update – move when happy.txt is newer or missing in target directory:

$ mv -u happy.txt backup

Move happy.txt and prompt before overwrite backup / happy.txt:

$ mv -v happy.txt backup

Linux VI Command – Set Line Number

The “Set Number” command in the VI (visual instrument) text editor seems may not seem like the most useful command.  However, it is more useful than it appears.  Using the “set number” command is a visual aid, which facilitates navigation within the VI editor. 

To Enable Line Number In the VI Editor

The “set Number” command is used to make display line numbers, to enable line numbers:

  • Press the Esc key within the VI editor, if you are currently in insert or append mode.
  • Press the colon key “:”, which will appear at the lower-left corner of the screen.
  • Following the colon enter “set number” command (without quotes) and press enter.

A column of sequential line numbers will then appear at the left side of the screen. Each line number references the text located directly to the right. Now you will know exactly which line is where and be able to enter a colon and the line number you want to move to and move around the document lines with certainty.

To Disable Line Number In the VI Editor

When you are ready to turn offline numbering, again follow the preceding instructions, except this time, enter the following line at the : prompt:

  • Press the Esc key within the VI editor, if you are currently in insert or append mode.
  • Press the colon key “:”, which will appear at the lower-left corner of the screen.
  • Following the colon enter “set nonumber” command (without quotes) and press enter.

To Make The Line Number Enable When You Open VI:

Normally, vi will forget the setting you’ve chosen once you’ve left the editor. You can, however, make the “set Number” command take effect automatically whenever you use vi on a user/account, enter the “set Number” command as a line in the .exrc file in your home directory.

Related References