Data analytics has changed where data is no longer manageable in relational databases only. Data is flowing from various sources which are not of the same format. This means it is not possible to store all data in the same repository. Some are best suited for storing in relational databases, others for Apache Hadoop while others are best suited for NoSQL databases.
During data analyzing, so much time is taken in trying to bring the distributed data together instead of obtaining insights. Db2 Federation has come to the rescue of data analysts. Federation concept in db2 eliminates the need for storing data in different repositories and reduces the hassle of getting insights.
What is DB2 Federation?
DB2 federation is a data integration technology that permits remote database objects to be accessed as local DB2 database objects. This technology connects multiple databases and makes them appear like one database.
How does DB2 federation work?
Federation allows you to access all of your data that is on multiple distributed databases using a single query. When implemented in an organization, this technology can be used to access data that is on any of the organization’s Db2, whether local or in the cloud.
Why use DB2 federation?
So, why should you use the federation? This concept brings data of all formats into one virtual source. With data being retrieved from one virtual source, analyzing it becomes cost-effective and efficient.
What are its primary use cases for DB2 federation?
Merging of various sources of data
DB2 federation facilitates consolidating of data from sources data local and cloud to form one virtual data source. This eliminates the process of migrating data which can be expensive and troublesome.
Increase the capacity of a repository beyond the fixed limits
Physical storage capacity is bound to have a limit which is one reason you may find an organization has distributed its data in various repositories. With federation, the storage is virtual and therefore doesn’t have any limit. This technology can greatly help you if your physical dataset is running low on space.
Linking up to Db2 Warehouse on Cloud
People who use Db2 products can federate data from Db2 on Cloud and Db2 Warehouse on the Cloud. This will give them a joint interface where they can access, add, query, and analyze data without encountering the complex ETL processes. Better still, no additional code will be required to execute all these processes. This makes it easy for people with the low technical know-how to use these products smoothly.
Split data across different servers
At times, you might choose to partition your data. With federation integration technology, partitioned data can be queried with a unified interface. Federation allows you to better balance your workloads, scale precise parts of an app, and create micro-services that work harmoniously.
Generally, db2 federation makes it access data by bringing it together into a single virtual source. This brings about cost and time-saving benefits. When you want to analyze data, you can get insights immediately instead of spending a lot of time querying through repositories.
Over the years have occasionally use the action column feature, however, the last month or so I have found myself using it quite a lot. This is especially true in relation to the tea set and not just in relation to the change capture stage.
The first thing you need to know is, if you want to prevent getting the ‘no action column found’ notice on the target stage, need to ensure that the action column has been coded to be a single character field char (1). Otherwise, the Netezza connector stage will not recognize your field as an action column.
While most developers will commonly work with the action column feature in relation to the change capture stage, it can also be very useful if you have created a field from one or more inputs to tell you what behavior the row requires. I have found that this approach can be very useful and efficient under the right circumstances.
Action column configuration example
Change Code Values Mapping To Action Column
Here’s a quick reference table to provide the interpretation of the change type code to the actual one character action column value to which it will need to be interpreted.
Change Code Type
Change Type Code
Action Column Value
Copy (Data Without Changes)
value for this Change Type
Example Transformer Stage, Derivation
Here is a quick transformer stage derivation coding example to take advantage of the action call capabilities. If you haven’t already handled the removal of the copy rows, you may also want to add a constraint.
The combination I most frequently find myself using is the insert and update combination.
if Lnk_Out_To_Tfm.change_code=1 then ‘I’
Else if Lnk_Out_To_Tfm.change_code=2 then ‘D’
Else if Lnk_Out_To_Tfm.change_code=3 then ‘U’
Home > InfoSphere Information Server 11.7.0 > InfoSphere DataStage and QualityStage > Developing parallel jobs > Introduction to InfoSphere DataStage Balanced Optimization > Job design considerations > Specific considerations for the Netezza connector
Globally, organizations are facing challenges emanating from data issues, including data consolidation, value, heterogeneity, and quality. At the same time, they have to deal with the aspect of Big Data. In other words, consolidating, organizing, and realizing the value of data in an organization has been a challenge over the years. To overcome these challenges, a series of strategies have been devised. For instance, organizations are actively leveraging on methods such as Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Stores to meet their data assets requirements. Unfortunately, the time and resources required to deliver value using these legacy methods is a distressing issue. In most cases, typical Data Warehouses applied for business intelligence (BI) rely on batch processing to consolidate and present data assets. This traditional approach is affected by the latency of information.
As the name suggests, Big Data describes a large volume of data that can either be structured or unstructured. It originates from business processes among other sources. Presently, artificial intelligence, mobile technology, social media, and the Internet of Things (IoT) have become new sources of vast amounts of data. In Big Data, the organization and consolidation matter more than the volume of the data. Ultimately, big data can be analyzed to generate insights that can be crucial in strategic decision making for a business.
Features of Big Data
The term Big Data is relatively new. However, the process of collecting and preserving vast amounts of information for different purposes has been there for decades. Big Data gained momentum recently with the three V’s features that include volume, velocity, and variety.
Volume: First, businesses gather information from a set of sources, such as social media, day-to-day operations, machine to machine data, weblogs, sensors, and so on. Traditionally, storing the data was a challenge. However, the requirement has been made possible by new technologies such as Hadoop.
Velocity: Another defining nature of Big Data is that it flows at an unprecedented rate that requires real-time processing. Organizations are gathering information from RFID tags, sensors, and other objects that need timely processing of data torrents.
Variety: In modern enterprises, information comes in different formats. For instance, a firm can gather numeric and structured data from traditional databases as well as unstructured emails, video, audio, business transactions, and texts.
Complexity: As mentioned above, Big Data comes from diverse sources and in varying formats. In effect, it becomes a challenge to consolidate, match, link, cleanse, or modify this data across an organizational system. Unfortunately, Big Data opportunities can only be explored when an organization successfully correlates relationships and connects multiple data sets to prevent it from spiraling out of control.
Variability: Big Data can have inconsistent flows within periodic peaks. For instance, in social media, a topic can be trending, which can tremendously increase collected data. Variability is also common while dealing with unstructured data.
Big Data Potential and Importance
The vast amount of data collected and preserved on a global scale will keep growing. This fact implies that there is more potential to generate crucial insights from this information. Unfortunately, due to various issues, only a small fraction of this data actually gets analyzed. There is a significant and untapped potential that businesses can explore to make proper and beneficial use of this information.
Analyzing Big Data allows businesses to make timely and effective decisions using raw data. In reality, organizations can gather data from diverse sources and process it to develop insights that can aid in reducing operational costs, production time, innovating new products, and making smarter decisions. Such benefits can be achieved when enterprises combine Big Data with analytic techniques, such as text analytics, predictive analytics, machine learning, natural language processing, data mining and so on.
Big Data Application Areas
Practically, Big Data can be used in nearly all industries. In the financial sector, a significant amount of data is gathered from diverse sources, which requires banks and insurance companies to innovate ways to manage Big Data. This industry aims at understanding and satisfying their customers while meeting regulatory compliance and preventing fraud. In effect, banks can exploit Big Data using advanced analytics to generate insights required to make smart decisions.
In the education sector, Big Data can be employed to make vital improvements on school systems, quality of education and curriculums. For instance, Big Data can be analyzed to assess students’ progress and to design support systems for professors and tutors.
Healthcare providers, on the other hand, collect patients’ records and design various treatment plans. In the healthcare sector, practitioners and service providers are required to offer accurate and timely treatment that is transparent to meet the stringent regulations in the industry and to enhance the quality of life. In this case, Big Data can be managed to uncover insights that can be used to improve the quality of service.
Governments and different authorities can apply analytics to Big Data to create the understanding required to manage social utilities and to develop solutions necessary to solve common problems, such as city congestion, crime, and drug use. However, governments must also consider other issues such as privacy and confidentiality while dealing with Big Data.
In manufacturing and processing, Big Data offers insights that stakeholders can use to efficiently use raw materials to output quality products. Manufacturers can perform analytics on big data to generate ideas that can be used to increase market share, enhance safety, minimize wastage, and solve other challenges faster.
In the retail sector, companies rely heavily on customer loyalty to maintain market share in a highly competitive market. In this case, managing big data can help retailers to understand the best methods to utilize in marketing their products to existing and potential consumers, and also to sustain relationships.
Challenges Handling Big Data
With the introduction of Big Data, the challenge of consolidating and creating value on data assets becomes magnified. Today, organizations are expected to handle increased data velocity, variety, and volume. It is now a business necessity to deal with traditional enterprise data and Big Data. Traditional relational databases are suitable for storing, processing, and managing low-latency data. Big Data has increased volume, variety, and velocity, making it difficult for legacy database systems to efficiently handle it.
Failing to act on this challenge implies that enterprises cannot tap the opportunities presented by data generated from diverse sources, such as machine sensors, weblogs, social media, and so on. On the contrary, organizations that will explore Big Data capabilities amidst its challenges will remain competitive. It is necessary for businesses to integrate diverse systems with Big Data platforms in a meaningful manner, as heterogeneity of data environments continue to increase.
Virtualization involves turning physical computing resources, such as databases and servers into multiple systems. The concept consists of making the function of an IT resource simulated in software, making it identical to the corresponding physical object. Virtualization technique uses abstraction to create a software application to appear and operate like hardware to provide a series of benefits ranging from flexibility, scalability, performance, and reliability.
Typically, virtualization is made possible using virtual machines (VMs) implemented in microprocessors with necessary hardware support and OS-level implementations to enhance computational productivity. VMs offers additional convenience, security, and integrity with little resource overhead.
Benefits of Virtualization
Achieving the economics of wide-scale functional virtualization using available technologies is easy to improve reliability by employing virtualization offered by cloud service providers on fully redundant and standby basis. Traditionally, organizations would deploy several services to operate at a fraction of their capacity to meet increased processing and storage demands. These requirements resulted in increased operating costs and inefficiencies. With the introduction of virtualization, the software can be used to simulate functionalities of hardware. In effect, businesses can outstandingly eliminate the possibility of system failures. At the same time, the technology significantly reduces capital expense components of IT budgets. In future, more resources will be spent on operating, than acquisition expenses. Company funds will be channeled to service providers instead of purchasing expensive equipment and hiring local personnel.
Overall, virtualization enables IT functions across business divisions and industries to be performed more efficiently, flexibly, inexpensively, and productively. The technology meaningfully eliminates expensive traditional implementations.
Apart from reducing capital and operating costs for organizations, virtualization minimizes and eliminates downtime. It also increases IT productivity, responsiveness, and agility. The technology provides faster provisioning of resources and applications. In case of incidents, virtualization allows fast disaster recovery that maintains business continuity.
Types of Virtualization
There are various types of virtualization, such as a server, network, and desktop virtualization.
In server virtualization, more than one operating system runs on a single physical server to increase IT efficiency, reduce costs, achieve timely workload deployment, improve availability and enhance performance.
Network virtualization involves reproducing a physical network to allow applications to run on a virtual system. This type of virtualization provides operational benefits and hardware independence.
In desktop virtualization, desktops and applications are virtualized and delivered to different divisions and branches in a company. Desktop virtualization supports outsourced, offshore, and mobile workers who can access simulate desktop on tablets and iPads.
Characteristics of Virtualization
Some of the features of virtualization that support the efficiency and performance of the technology include:
Partitioning: In virtualization, several applications, database systems, and operating systems are supported by a single physical system since the technology allows partitioning of limited IT resources.
Isolation: Virtual machines can be isolated from the physical systems hosting them. In effect, if a single virtual instance breaks down, the other machine, as well as the host hardware components, will not be affected.
Encapsulation: A virtual machine can be presented as a single file while abstracting other features. This makes it possible for users to identify the VM based on a role it plays.
Data Virtualization – A Solution for Big Data Challenges
Virtualization can be viewed as a strategy that helps derive information value when needed. The technology can be used to add a level of efficiency that makes big data applications a reality. To enjoy the benefits of big data, organizations need to abstract data from different reinforcements. In other words, virtualization can be deployed to provide partitioning, encapsulation, and isolation that abstracts the complexities of Big Data stores to make it easy to integrate data from multiple stores with other data from systems used in an enterprise.
Virtualization enables ease of access to Big Data. The two technologies can be combined and configured using the software. As a result, the approach makes it possible to present an extensive collection of disassociated and structured and unstructured data ranging from application and weblogs, operating system configuration, network flows, security events, to storage metrics.
Virtualization improves storage and analysis capabilities on Big Data. As mentioned earlier, the current traditional relational databases are incapable of addressing growing needs inherent to Big Data. Today, there is an increase in special purpose applications for processing varied and unstructured big data. The tools can be used to extract value from Big Data efficiently while minimizing unnecessary data replication. Virtualization tools also make it possible for enterprises to access numerous data sources by integrating them with legacy relational data centers, data warehouses, and other files that can be used in business intelligence. Ultimately, companies can deploy virtualization to achieve a reliable way to handle complexity, volume, and heterogeneity of information collected from diverse sources. The integrated solutions will also meet other business needs for near-real-time information processing and agility.
In conclusion, it is evident that the value of Big Data comes from processing information gathered from diverse sources in an enterprise. Virtualizing big data offers numerous benefits that cannot be realized while using physical infrastructure and traditional database systems. It provides simplification of Big Data infrastructure that reduces operational costs and time to results. Shortly, Big Data use cares will shift from theoretical possibilities to multiple use patterns that feature powerful analytics and affordable archival of vast datasets. Virtualization will be crucial in exploiting Big Data presented as abstracted data services.
Occasionally, one runs into the problem of hidden field values breaking join criteria. I have had to clean up bad archive and conversion data with hidden characters serval times over the last couple of weeks, so, I thought I might as well capture this note for future use.
I tried the Replace command which is prevalent for Netezza answers to this issue on the web, but my client’s version does not support that command. So, I needed to use the Translate command instead to accomplish it. It took a couple of searches of the usual bad actors to find the character causing the issue, which on this day was chr(0). Here is a quick mockup of the command I used to solve this issue.
Example Select Statement
Here is a quick example select SQL to identify problem rows.
SELECT TRANSLATE(F.BLOGTYPE_CODE, CHR(0), ”) AS BLOGTYPE_CODE, BT.BLOG_TYP_ID, LENGTH(BT.BLOG_TYP_ID) AS LNGTH_BT, LENGTH(F.BLOGTYPE_CODE) AS LNGTH_ BLOGTYPE
FROM BLOGS_TBL F, BLOG_TYPES BT WHERE TRANSLATE(F.BLOGTYPE_CODE, CHR(0), ”) = BT.BLOG_TYP_ID AND LENGTH(BT.BLOG_TYP_ID) <>Length(LENGTH(F.BLOGTYPE_CODE) ;
Example Update Statement
Here is a quick shell update statement to remove the Char(0) characters from the problem field.
Update <<Your Table Name>> A
Set A.<<Your Field Name>> = TRANSLATE(A.<<Your FieldName>>, CHR(0), ”)
where length(A.<<Your Field Name>>) <> Length(A.<<Your FieldName>>) And << Additional criteria>>;
Today, a business heavily depends on data to gain insights into their processes and operations and to develop new ways to increase market share and profits. In most cases, data required to generate the insights are sourced and located in diverse places, which requires reliable access mechanism. Currently, data warehousing and data virtualization are two principal techniques used to store and access the sources of critical data in a company. Each approach offers various capabilities and can be deployed for particular use cases as described in this article.
A data warehouse is designed and developed to secure host historical data from different sources. In effect, this technique protects data sources from performance degradation caused by the impact of sophisticated analytics and enormous demands for reports. Today, various tools and platforms have been developed for data warehouse automation in companies. They can be deployed to quicken development, automate testing, maintenance, and other steps involved in data warehousing. In a data warehouse, data is stored as a series of snapshots, where a record represents data at a particular time. In effect, companies can analyze data warehouse snapshots to compare data between different periods. The results are converted into insights required to make crucial business decisions.
Moreover, a data warehouse is optimized for other functions, such as data retrieval. The technology duplicates data to allow database de-normalization that enhances query performance. The solution is further deployed to create an enterprise data warehouse (EDW) used to service the entire organization.
Features of a Data Warehouse
A data warehouse is subject-oriented, and it is designed to help entities analyze data. For instance, a company can start a data warehouse focused on sales to learn more about sales data. Analytics on this warehouse can help establish insights such as the best customer for the period. The data warehouse is subject oriented since it can be defined based on a subject matter.
A data warehouse is integrated. Data from various sources is first out into a consistent format. The process requires the firm to resolve some challenges, such as naming conflicts and inconsistencies on units of measure.
A data warehouse in nonvolatile. In effect, data entered into the warehouse should not change after it is stored. This feature increases accuracy and integrity in data warehousing.
A data warehouse is time variant since it focuses on data changes over time. Data warehousing discovers trends in business by using large amounts of historical data. In effect, a typical operation in a data warehouse scans millions of rows to return an output.
A data warehouse is designed and developed to handle ad hoc queries. In most cases, organizations may not predict the amount of workload of a data warehouse. Therefore, it is recommendable to optimize the data warehouse to perform optimally over any possible query operation.
A data warehouse is regularly updated by the ETL process using bulk data modification techniques. Therefore, end users cannot directly update the data warehouse.
Advantages of Data Warehousing
The primary motivation for developing a data warehouse is to provide timely information required for decision making in an organization. A business intelligence data warehouse serves as an initial checkpoint for crucial business data. When a company stores its data in a data warehouse, tracking it becomes natural. The technology allows users to perform quick searches to be able to retrieve and analyze static data.
Another driver for companies investing in data warehouses involves integrating data from disparate sources. This capability adds value to operational applications like customer relationship management systems. A well-integrated warehouse allows the solution to translate information to a more usable and straightforward format, making it easy for users to understand the business data.
The technology also allows organizations to perform a series of analysis on data.
A data warehouse reduces the cost to access historical data in an organization.
Data warehousing provides standardization of data across an organization. Moreover, it helps identify and eliminate errors. Before loading data, the solution shows inconsistencies to users and corrects them.
A data warehouse also improves the turnaround time for analysis and report generation.
The technology makes it easy for users to access and share data. A user can conduct a quick search on a data warehouse to find and analyze static data without wasting time.
Data warehousing removes informational processing load from transaction-oriented databases.
Disadvantages of Data Warehousing
While data warehousing technology is undoubtedly beneficial to many organizations, not all data warehouses are relevant to a business. In some cases, a data warehouse can be expensive to scale and maintain.
Preparing a data warehouse is time-consuming since it requires users to input raw data, which has to be achieved manually.
A data warehouse is not a perfect choice for handing unstructured and complex raw data. Moreover, it faces difficulties incompatibility. Depending on the data sources, companies may require a business intelligence team to ensure compatibility is achieved for data coming from sources running distinct operating systems and programs.
The technology requires a maintenance cost to continue working correctly. The solution needs to be updated with latest features that might be costly. Regularly maintaining a data warehouse will need a business to spend more on top of the initial investment.
A data warehouse use can be limited due to information privacy and confidentiality issues. In most cases, businesses collect and store sensitive data belonging to their clients. Viewing it is only allowed to individual employees, which limits the benefits offered by a data warehouse.
Data Warehousing Use Case
There are a series of ways organizations use data warehouses. Businesses can optimize the technology for performance by identifying the type of data warehouse they have.
A data warehouses can be used by an organization that is struggling to report efficiently on business operations and activities. The solution makes it possible to access the required data
A data warehouse is necessary for an organization where data is copied separately by different divisions for analysis in spreadsheets that are not consistent with one another.
Data warehousing is crucial in organizations where uncertainties about data accuracy are causing executives to question the veracity of reports.
A data warehouse is crucial for business intelligence acceleration. The technology delivers rapid data insights to analysts at different scales, concurrency, and without requiring manual tuning or optimization of a database.
Data virtualization technology does not require transfer or storage of data. Instead, users employ a combination of application programming interfaces (APIs) and metadata (data about data) to interface with data in different sources. Users use joined queries to gain access to the original data sources. In other words, data virtualization offers a simplified and integrated view to business data in real-time as requested by business users, applications, and analytics. In effect, the technology makes it possible to integrate data from distinct sources, formats, and locations, without replication. It creates a unified virtual data layer that delivers data services to support users and various business applications.
Data virtualization performs many of the same data integration functions, that is, extract, transform, and load, data replication, and federation. It leverages modern technology to deliver real-time data integration with agility, low cost, and high speed. In effect, data virtualization eliminates traditional data integration and reduces the need for replicated data warehouses and data marts in most cases.
Capabilities and Benefits of Data Virtualization
There are various benefits of implementing data virtualization in an organization.
Firstly, data virtualization allows access and leverage of all information that helps a firm achieve a competitive advantage. The solution offers a unified virtual layer that abstracts the underlying source complexity and presents disparate data sources as a single source.
Data virtualization is cheaper since it does not require actual hardware devices to be installed. In other words, organizations no longer need to purchase and dedicate a lot of IT resources and additional monetary investment to create on-site resources, similar to the one used in a data warehouse.
Data virtualization allows speedy deployment of resources. In this solution, resource provisioning is fast and straightforward. Organizations are not required to set up physical machines or to create local networks or install other IT components. Users have a single point of access to a virtual environment that can be distributed to the entire company.
Data virtualization is an energy-efficient system since the solution does not require additional local hardware and software. Therefore, an organization will not be required to install cooling systems.
Disadvantages of Data Virtualization
Data virtualization creates a security risk. In the modern world, having information is a cheap way to make money. In effect, company data is frequently targeted by hackers. Implementing data virtualization from disparate sources may give an opportunity to malicious users to steal critical information and use it for monetary gain.
Data virtualization requires a series of channels or links that must work in cohesion to perform the intended task. In this cases, all data sources should be available for virtualization to work effectively.
Data Virtualization Use Cases
Companies that rely on business intelligence require data virtualization for rapid prototyping to meet immediate business needs. Data virtualization can create a real-time reporting solution that unifies access to multiple internal databases.
Provisioning data services for single-view applications, such as in customer service and call center applications require data virtualization.
End of Support for IBM InfoSphere Information Server 9.1.0
IBM InfoSphere Information Server 9.1.0 will reach End of Support on 2018-09-30. If you are still on the InfoSphere Information Server (IIS) 9.1.0, I hope you have a plan to migrate to an 11-series version soon. InfoSphere Information Server (IIS) 11.7 would be worth considering if you don’t already own an 11-series license. InfoSphere Information Server (IIS) 11.7 will allow you to take advantage of the evolving thin client tools and other capabilities in the 2018 release pipeline without needing to perform another upgrade.
IBM Support, End of support notification: InfoSphere Information Server 9.1.0
While investigating a recent Infosphere Information Server (IIS), Datastage, Essbase Connect error I found the explanations of the probable causes of the error not to be terribly meaningful. So, now that I have run our error to ground, I thought it might be nice to jot down a quick note of the potential cause of the ‘Client Commands are Currently Not Being Accepted’ error, which I gleaned from the process.
Error Message Id
An error occurred while processing the request on the server. The error information is 1051544 (message on contacting or from application:[<<DateTimeStamp>>]Local////3544/Error(1013204) Client Commands are Currently Not Being Accepted.
Possible Causes of The Error
This Error is a problem with access to the Essbase object or accessing the security within the Essbase Object. This can be a result of multiple issues, such as:
Object doesn’t exist – The Essbase object didn’t exist in the location specified,
Communications – the location is unavailable or cannot be reached,
Path Security – Security gets in the way to access the Essbase object location
Essbase Security – Security within the Essbase object does not support the user or filter being submitted. Also, the Essbase object security may be corrupted or incomplete.
Essbase Object Structure – the Essbase object was not properly structured to support the filter or the Essbase filter is malformed for the current structure.
IBM Knowledge Center, InfoSphere Information Server 11.7.0, Connecting to data sources, Enterprise applications, IBM InfoSphere Information Server Pack for Hyperion Essbase