Useful Links – Linux

Here are a few useful references for Linux, which may be helpful.

Linux Documentation

Bash Documentation

Links for Major Linux Distributions

CentOS

Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL)

Ubuntu

The most Important Linux Distributions To Learn Professionally

Many of us either want a way to import our Linux knowledge, improve our technical career options or perhaps, move into the technology career.  To do any of these efficiently them, the first step would be to focus on the major Linux distribution used by employers. 

The most adapted distributions Linux are Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and Ubuntu, so, of the multitude of Linux distributions available, these would be the to learn if you want to move your career forward.

However, if you are seeking an inexpensive alternative to hone your Linux skills at home, then CentOS, is likely your best choice since it is free and is pretty much a copy of RedHat.

Related References

What is AIX?

AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is an operating system developed by IBM for business all across the world that needs data metrics that can keep up with the ever-changing scope of business in today’s world. AIX is a version of UNIX. AIX is designed to work on a number of computer platforms from the same manufacturer. On its launch, the system was designed for IBM’s RT PC RISC workstation.

User interface

AIX was developed with Bourne Shell as the default shell for three versions of the OS. Afterwards, it was changed to KornShell going forward from version 4. The OS uses Common Desktop Environment (CDE) as the default user interface for graphics. The System Management Interface Tool on the OS allows users to access the menu using a hierarchy of commands instead of the command line. 

Compatible systems

The operating system works on a number of hardware platforms. The initial OS was designed for the IBM RT PC and used a microkernel that controlled the mouse, disk drives, keyboard, and display. This allowed users to use all these components between operating systems by the use of a hot key-the alt+tab combination. The OS was also fitted on newer systems such as the IBM PS/2 series, IDM mainframes, AI-64 systems and can also be used with the Apple’s server network. AIX is commonly used on IBM’s 64-bit POWER processor and systems. AIX can run most Linux applications (after recompiling) and has full support for Java 2.

Since its introduction to computer infrastructure, the operating system has undergone a lot of upgrades with five versions released since 2001. The latest version of the software is the AIX 7.2. All of these come with a high tech security system and fast uptimes.

As an operating system AIX has become popular with students who learn quickly by working on AIX projects live. Working professionals have also been attracted by the dependability of the system and the intuitive that is part of its design.

Related References

Best Linux Distros for Beginners

For those people who dip their toe into Linux systems for the first time, the endless options for distributions can be overwhelming, mainly when you are unsure for what to search. Just a few years ago when Linux was still in its early stages, this task would be much more comfortable as you could choose one of which you have heard about or have experienced. However, the increasing number of available distros and their vocal fans makes it challenging to settle on one.
So if you are new to this platform and don’t know where to start, here are top 5 best Linux distros for beginners to check out.

CentOS is a Linux distribution, which is derived from the sources of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and therefore has an obvious advantage for folks wanting to learn, improve, and practice their skills. Especially, since it is a free distribution and there are courses available to get you started on training sites like Udemy. the relationship between CentOS and Rehat make the skill and commands learn transferable since Redhat is a major Linux distribution us by businesses.

Ubuntu Linux

A list of Linux distros can’t be complete without the Ubuntu Linux. Indeed, most Linux distros come from Ubuntu simply because it is among the most user-friendly and stable ones available.
Just like other modern systems, Ubuntu Linux includes its app store named Ubuntu Software. You can find a collection of numerous apps to install. Though they might look entirely unfamiliar at the beginning, any mobile or computer user would learn how to use it quickly without a learning curve.
Ubuntu Linux comes with the installed software, which may include the web browser Firefox, office suite LibreOffice, webcam app Cheese, email client Thunderbird, and more.

Ubuntu Linux Pros

  • Easy to learn and use
  • Great support from the community
  • Quick to install and set up
  • Elegant and stylish design
  • Modern and user-friendly interface

Ubuntu Linux Cons

  • Ubuntu Linux has higher operating system requirements

Elementary OS

If you are a macOS user, then the Elementary OS Linux distro will be familiar. The developers try to create a global design that can make every element on the desktop feel and look similar for macOS users.


The Elementary OS desktop apps are launchable from the Dock or Applications menu. Power, network, notifications, and sound options are in the top bar, also known as the Wingpanel.
The AppCenter allows you to install essential applications to get your tasks done. Overall, Elementary OS is a great Linux distro for beginners and is simple to use.

Elementary OS Pros

  • Perfect hardware recognition
  • Minimalist interface resembling macOS
  • Simple to use
  • Ubuntu Foundation

Elementary OS Cons

  • A limited number of installed applications

Zorin OS

If you are a fan of Windows, the Zorin OS would be a great Linux distro for you. It comes with a familiar desktop interface that is gorgeous and simple to navigate. You can also switch to other interfaces to meet your tastes. These include GNOME3, Window XP, and Window 7.
Zorin OS is the only distro in this list designed with Windows users in mind. It includes Wine, a compatibility layer which makes it possible to install Windows apps on Linux. The distribution also integrates PlayOnLinux, a graphical app store to set up many Windows applications.

ZORIN OS Pros

  • Ideal for Windows users
  • An excellent collection of installed applications
  • Modern and elegant interface
  • You can change the interface to suit your preferences

ZORIN OS Cons

  • It takes time to learn

Linux Mint

Linux Mint is another Linux distro based on Ubuntu. Linux Mint offers 3 choices of desktops: Xfce, Mate, and Cinnamon. Each option has its pros and cons, but the Cinnamon is probably the best one for beginners.


This distro integrates familiar components on the desktop such as system tray, start button, or clickable icons. That’s why Linux Mint is an excellent option for those who are new to Linux.
Also, the Linux Mint is very lightweight as it only runs on 9 GB space of hard disk and 512 MB RAM. The lightweight footprint means you could load it up on an older PC and test before setting up on newer hardware.

Linux Mint Pros

  • Require low hardware
  • Great collection of default applications
  • Simple and user-friendly interface
  • Ubuntu Foundation

Linux Mint Cons

  • The interface is a bit old-fashioned

Ubuntu Budgie

Ubuntu Budgie is a gorgeous and straightforward Linux distro for beginners. Ubuntu Budgie has many new features on its Budgie desktop, such as the main menu, a dock, and a panel which includes notifications and some extras. Also, there are many other pre-installed apps to meet your needs, including LibreOffice, web browser Chromium, movie player GNOME MPV, webcam booth, and email.


Also, Ubuntu Budgie comes with a night light choice for those who often do plenty of work during the night and need to reduce the brightness. Ubuntu Budgie simplicity and beauty makes an impression.

Ubuntu Budgie Pros

  • Simple to learn
  • Ubuntu Foundation
  • The interface is gorgeous
  • Many default applications

Ubuntu Budgie Cons

  • Support could be unreliable

Conclusion

There are several things you should know about Linux distros:

  • You can download all of these distributions for free as .iso image files.
  • These distributions can be operated very well on most standard PC hardware, either laptops or desktops.
  • You need to burn ISO images to either a USB flash drive or CD/DVD.
  • It is possible to run all of these Linux distros as “live” instances, which means that you could boot your operating system from the flash drive or CD/DVD and run directly from the RAM of your PC without setting up anything.

Related References

8 Most Useful Linux Commands For Beginners

Do you think that the command lines are an old-fashion leftover from previous decades or an antiquated way of using a PC? Think again. Indeed, it is one of the most powerful and flexible ways to perform and manage in Linux. If you come from the comfort of a Mac or Window desktop, however, it can be a bit intimidating to get used to Linux commands. Everything is secretive, dark, and anything but friendly to beginners. That’s why we have rounded up this short list of the most useful Linux commands with examples. Keep reading and speed up your learning journey with Linux.

1. Ls command – list files

Ls is one of the most basic and common commands in Linux. You can use it to print contents in the current working directory and see the list of files, directories, or folders on your Linux system.
For instance, the command “ls tourism” will display the users every folder store inside the overall “tourism” folder. Keep in mind that directories and files will be denoted in different colors, which can be selected in the system.
You would also use the command “ls – R” to display all files both in the directories and subdirectories. Since Linux commands are case sensitive, make sure to enter “R” instead of “r” to avoid an error.

2. Cat command – create and view files

You can use the “cat” command to show text files. Also, it would be used for creating, combining, and copying text files. For example, use “cat linux_tip” to get inside the linux_tip file and read its contents on the screen.
To combine two text files “linux_tip_1” and “linux_tip_2, you can enter the following command “cat linux_tip_1 linux_tip_2 > linux_tip”. Keep in mind that only text documents would be combined and shown with this command.

3. Rm command – delete files

The “Rm” command can be used for removing files or directories from your Linux system without confirmation. The syntax is simple “Rm name_deleted_file.”
For example, the command “rm computer_science” will immediately remove the file or directory named “computer_science” from your computer. Make sure to consider carefully before using this command because you cannot get it back.

4. Mv command – move and rename files

To move and rename files, the “mv” command will be used. Here is the basic syntax for this task: “mv filename new_location.”
Suppose that you need to move the file name “english_class” to location “/home/school/documents”, just enter the command “mv english_class /home/school/documents.” Keep in mind that this command requires the permission of users.
The syntax for renaming a file is “mv filename newname”. An example command is “mv english_class french_class”

5. Mkdir – create directories

If you want to create a new directory in your Linux system, then you can use the “mkdir” command. The syntax is “mkdir new_directory.”
For instance, you can create a new directory named “final homework” by typing the following command “mkdir final_homework.” In case you do not want to make a parent directory manually, add the -p argument. Keep in mind that it is -p, not -P. Everything in Linux is case sensitive.

6. Rmdir command – remove directories

In contrast with the mkdir command, you can use the rmdir command to remove a directory. The syntax is similar: “rmdir removed_directory.”
If you enter the following command “rmdir basketball_data”, it will immediately delete the directory named “basketball_data”. Always check carefully to make sure that there is no sub-directory or file under the deleted directory. If possible, it is always better to delete the sub-directory or files first before moving to the parent one.

7. Man command – seek help in Linux

“Man” simply stands for manual. You can use this command to access a reference book of the Linux system, which is quite similar to the “Help” file in many popular applications or software. To seek help on any commands that you don’t understand, just enter “ma command_name”. The terminal will open a manual page for the typed command.
For example, if you enter “man ls”, the terminal will provide you with basic information on the “ls” command.

8. History command – view previous commands

As you can guess from the name, the “history” command can be used to display all of the commands that you just used previously for the current session. This can be helpful in referring to the old commands and re-entering or re-using them in the next operations.

Related References

End Of Support For IBM InfoSphere 9.1.0

IBM Information Server (IIS)
IBM Information Server (IIS)

End of Support for IBM InfoSphere Information Server 9.1.0

IBM InfoSphere Information Server 9.1.0 will reach End of Support on 2018-09-30.  If you are still on the InfoSphere Information Server (IIS) 9.1.0, I hope you have a plan to migrate to an 11-series version soon.  InfoSphere Information Server (IIS) 11.7 would be worth considering if you don’t already own an 11-series license. InfoSphere Information Server (IIS) 11.7 will allow you to take advantage of the evolving thin client tools and other capabilities in the 2018 release pipeline without needing to perform another upgrade.

Related References

IBM Support, End of support notification: InfoSphere Information Server 9.1.0

IBM Support, Software lifecycle, InfoSphere Information Server 9.1.0

IBM Knowledge Center, Home, InfoSphere Information Server 11.7.0, IBM InfoSphere Information Server Version 11.7.0 documentation

Netezza / PureData – How to Substring on a Character

PureData Powered by Netezza
PureData Powered by Netezza

 

I had a reason this week to perform a substring on a character in Netezza this week, something I have not had a need to do before.  The process was not as straightforward as I would have thought, since the command is explained as a static position command, and the IBM documentation, honestly, wasn’t much help.  Knowing full well, that text strings are variable having to provide a static position is not terribly useful in and of itself.  So, we need to use an expression to make the substring command flexible and dynamic.

I did get it work the way I needed, but it took two commands to make it happen:

  • The First was the ’instr’ command to identify the field and character I wanted to substring on: instr(<<FIELD_NAME>>,’~’) as This provides the position number of the tilde (~).
  • The second was the ‘substr’ command in which I embedded the ‘instr’ command: substr(<<FIELD_NAME>>,0,instr(<<FIELD_NAME>>,’~’) )

This worked nicely for what I needed, which was to pick out a file name from the beginning of a string, which was delimited with a tilde (~)

Substring on a Character Command Format

  • This format example starts with position zero (0) as position 1 of substring command and goes to the first tilde (~) as position 2 of the substring command.
Select  <<FIELD_NAME>>

, instr(<>,’~’) as pos2

, substr(<<FIELD_NAME>>,0,instr(<<FIELD_NAME>>,’~’) ) as Results

From <<Table_Name>>

where  <<Where_Clause>>;

 

 

Related references

IBM Knowledge Center, Home, PureData System for Analytics 7.2.1, IBM Netezza database user documentation, Netezza SQL basics, Netezza SQL extensions, Character string functions

IBM Knowledge Center, Home PureData System for Analytics 7.0.3, IBM Netezza Database User’s Guide, Netezza SQL basics, Netezza SQL extensions, Character functions