Many of us either want a way to import our Linux knowledge,
improve our technical career options or perhaps, move into the technology
career. To do any of these efficiently
them, the first step would be to focus on the major Linux distribution used by
The most adapted distributions Linux are Red Hat Enterprise
Linux (RHEL) and Ubuntu, so, of the multitude of Linux distributions available,
these would be the to learn if you want to move your career forward.
However, if you are seeking an inexpensive alternative to hone your Linux skills at home, then CentOS, is likely your best choice since it is free and is pretty much a copy of RedHat.
AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is an operating system developed by IBM for business all across the world that needs data metrics that can keep up with the ever-changing scope of business in today’s world. AIX is a version of UNIX. AIX is designed to work on a number of computer platforms from the same manufacturer. On its launch, the system was designed for IBM’s RT PC RISC workstation.
AIX was developed with Bourne Shell
as the default shell for three versions of the OS. Afterwards, it was changed
to KornShell going forward from version 4. The OS uses Common Desktop
Environment (CDE) as the default user interface for graphics. The System
Management Interface Tool on the OS allows users to access the menu using a
hierarchy of commands instead of the command line.
The operating system works on a number of hardware platforms. The initial OS was designed for the IBM RT PC and used a microkernel that controlled the mouse, disk drives, keyboard, and display. This allowed users to use all these components between operating systems by the use of a hot key-the alt+tab combination. The OS was also fitted on newer systems such as the IBM PS/2 series, IDM mainframes, AI-64 systems and can also be used with the Apple’s server network. AIX is commonly used on IBM’s 64-bit POWER processor and systems. AIX can run most Linux applications (after recompiling) and has full support for Java 2.
Since its introduction to computer infrastructure, the operating system has undergone a lot of upgrades with five versions released since 2001. The latest version of the software is the AIX 7.2. All of these come with a high tech security system and fast uptimes.
As an operating system AIX has become popular with students who learn quickly by working on AIX projects live. Working professionals have also been attracted by the dependability of the system and the intuitive that is part of its design.
For those people who dip their toe into Linux systems for the first time, the endless options for distributions can be overwhelming, mainly when you are unsure for what to search. Just a few years ago when Linux was still in its early stages, this task would be much more comfortable as you could choose one of which you have heard about or have experienced. However, the increasing number of available distros and their vocal fans makes it challenging to settle on one.
So if you are new to this platform and don’t know where to start, here are top 5 best Linux distros for beginners to check out.
CentOS is a Linux distribution, which is derived from the sources of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and therefore has an obvious advantage for folks wanting to learn, improve, and practice their skills. Especially, since it is a free distribution and there are courses available to get you started on training sites like Udemy. the relationship between CentOS and Rehat make the skill and commands learn transferable since Redhat is a major Linux distribution us by businesses.
A list of Linux distros can’t be complete without the Ubuntu Linux. Indeed, most Linux distros come from Ubuntu simply because it is among the most user-friendly and stable ones available.
Just like other modern systems, Ubuntu Linux includes its app store named Ubuntu Software. You can find a collection of numerous apps to install. Though they might look entirely unfamiliar at the beginning, any mobile or computer user would learn how to use it quickly without a learning curve.
Ubuntu Linux comes with the installed software, which may include the web browser Firefox, office suite LibreOffice, webcam app Cheese, email client Thunderbird, and more.
Ubuntu Linux Pros
Easy to learn and use
Great support from the community
Quick to install and set up
Elegant and stylish design
Modern and user-friendly interface
Ubuntu Linux Cons
Ubuntu Linux has higher operating system requirements
If you are a macOS user, then the Elementary OS Linux distro will be familiar. The developers try to create a global design that can make every element on the desktop feel and look similar for macOS users.
The Elementary OS desktop apps are launchable from the Dock or Applications menu. Power, network, notifications, and sound options are in the top bar, also known as the Wingpanel. The AppCenter allows you to install essential applications to get your tasks done. Overall, Elementary OS is a great Linux distro for beginners and is simple to use.
If you are a fan of Windows, the Zorin OS would be a great Linux distro for you. It comes with a familiar desktop interface that is gorgeous and simple to navigate. You can also switch to other interfaces to meet your tastes. These include GNOME3, Window XP, and Window 7.
Zorin OS is the only distro in this list designed with Windows users in mind. It includes Wine, a compatibility layer which makes it possible to install Windows apps on Linux. The distribution also integrates PlayOnLinux, a graphical app store to set up many Windows applications.
ZORIN OS Pros
Ideal for Windows users
An excellent collection of installed applications
Modern and elegant interface
You can change the interface to suit your preferences
Linux Mint is another Linux distro based on Ubuntu. Linux Mint offers 3 choices of desktops: Xfce, Mate, and Cinnamon. Each option has its pros and cons, but the Cinnamon is probably the best one for beginners.
This distro integrates familiar components on the desktop such as system tray, start button, or clickable icons. That’s why Linux Mint is an excellent option for those who are new to Linux. Also, the Linux Mint is very lightweight as it only runs on 9 GB space of hard disk and 512 MB RAM. The lightweight footprint means you could load it up on an older PC and test before setting up on newer hardware.
Ubuntu Budgie is a gorgeous and straightforward Linux distro for beginners. Ubuntu Budgie has many new features on its Budgie desktop, such as the main menu, a dock, and a panel which includes notifications and some extras. Also, there are many other pre-installed apps to meet your needs, including LibreOffice, web browser Chromium, movie player GNOME MPV, webcam booth, and email.
Also, Ubuntu Budgie comes with a night light choice for those who often do plenty of work during the night and need to reduce the brightness. Ubuntu Budgie simplicity and beauty makes an impression.
Ubuntu Budgie Pros
Simple to learn
The interface is gorgeous
Many default applications
Ubuntu Budgie Cons
Support could be unreliable
There are several things you should know about Linux distros:
You can download all of these distributions for free as .iso image files.
These distributions can be operated very well on most standard PC hardware, either laptops or desktops.
You need to burn ISO images to either a USB flash drive or CD/DVD.
It is possible to run all of these Linux distros as “live” instances, which means that you could boot your operating system from the flash drive or CD/DVD and run directly from the RAM of your PC without setting up anything.
Do you think that the command lines are an old-fashion
leftover from previous decades or an antiquated way of using a PC?
Think again. Indeed, it is one of the most powerful and flexible ways
to perform and manage in Linux. If you come from the comfort of a Mac
or Window desktop, however, it can be a bit intimidating to get used to
Linux commands. Everything is secretive, dark, and anything but
friendly to beginners. That’s why we have rounded up this short list of
the most useful Linux commands with examples. Keep reading and speed up
your learning journey with Linux.
1. Ls command – list files
is one of the most basic and common commands in Linux. You can use it
to print contents in the current working directory and see the list of
files, directories, or folders on your Linux system. For instance,
the command “ls tourism” will display the users every folder store
inside the overall “tourism” folder. Keep in mind that directories and
files will be denoted in different colors, which can be selected in the
system. You would also use the command “ls – R” to display all
files both in the directories and subdirectories. Since Linux commands
are case sensitive, make sure to enter “R” instead of “r” to avoid an
2. Cat command – create and view files
use the “cat” command to show text files. Also, it would be used for
creating, combining, and copying text files. For example, use “cat
linux_tip” to get inside the linux_tip file and read its contents on
the screen. To combine two text files “linux_tip_1” and
“linux_tip_2, you can enter the following command “cat linux_tip_1
linux_tip_2 > linux_tip”. Keep in mind that only text documents
would be combined and shown with this command.
3. Rm command – delete files
“Rm” command can be used for removing files or directories from your
Linux system without confirmation. The syntax is simple “Rm
name_deleted_file.” For example, the command “rm computer_science”
will immediately remove the file or directory named “computer_science”
from your computer. Make sure to consider carefully before using this
command because you cannot get it back.
4. Mv command – move and rename files
To move and rename files, the “mv” command will be used. Here is the basic syntax for this task: “mv filename new_location.” Suppose
that you need to move the file name “english_class” to location
“/home/school/documents”, just enter the command “mv english_class
/home/school/documents.” Keep in mind that this command requires the
permission of users. The syntax for renaming a file is “mv filename newname”. An example command is “mv english_class french_class”
5. Mkdir – create directories
you want to create a new directory in your Linux system, then you can
use the “mkdir” command. The syntax is “mkdir new_directory.” For
instance, you can create a new directory named “final homework” by
typing the following command “mkdir final_homework.” In case you do not
want to make a parent directory manually, add the -p argument. Keep in
mind that it is -p, not -P. Everything in Linux is case sensitive.
6. Rmdir command – remove directories
contrast with the mkdir command, you can use the rmdir command to
remove a directory. The syntax is similar: “rmdir removed_directory.” If
you enter the following command “rmdir basketball_data”, it will
immediately delete the directory named “basketball_data”. Always check
carefully to make sure that there is no sub-directory or file under the
deleted directory. If possible, it is always better to delete the
sub-directory or files first before moving to the parent one.
7. Man command – seek help in Linux
simply stands for manual. You can use this command to access a
reference book of the Linux system, which is quite similar to the
“Help” file in many popular applications or software. To seek help on
any commands that you don’t understand, just enter “ma command_name”.
The terminal will open a manual page for the typed command. For example, if you enter “man ls”, the terminal will provide you with basic information on the “ls” command.
8. History command – view previous commands
As you can guess from the name, the “history” command can be used to display all of the commands that you just used previously for the current session. This can be helpful in referring to the old commands and re-entering or re-using them in the next operations.
Unix and Linux are different operating systems with have some common commands. Source code for Linux is freely available to the public and Unix is not available. Linux operating system is a free/open source and Some versions of Unix are proprietary and others are a free/open source. Linux Operating system can be used for desktop systems and for servers. But the Unix is mainly used in servers, mainframes and high-end computers.
AIX is an operating system based on Unix versions from IBM. It is mainly designed for IBM’s workstations and for the server hardware platforms. And HP-UX is the operating system from HP ( Hewlett Packard ) based on Unix versions. HP-UX and AIX are stable operating system compare with Linux. HP-UX and AIX are platform dependent and they are limited to their own hardware. But in the case of Linux, it is platform independent and can be used with any hardware. Since HP-UX and AIX are platform dependent, they are optimised for the hardware and the performance is better than Linux operating systems. AIX is outperforming Linux from 5 to 10 percent.
AT&T Unix, started in the 1970s at the Bell Labs and newer versions of Unix have developed and some of them are listed below. In 1980, AT&T licensed Unix to third-party vendors and leading to the development of different variants. Some of them are;
Berkeley Unix, FreeBSD and its variants
Solaris from Sun Microsystem
HP-UX from Hewlett-Packard
AIX from IBM
MacOs from Apple
Unix installations are costlier since it requires some special hardware. MacOS needs apple computers, AIX needs IBM hardware and HP-UX needs HP hardware etc.
Linux is a free and open source operating system based on Unix. Linux kernel was first developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991. Linux was originally developed for personal computers but nowadays it is using personal computers as well as in server systems. Since it is very flexible, it can be installed in any hardware systems. Linux operating system is available for mobile phones, tablets, video game consoles, mainframes and supercomputers. Some of the best distros for small business are;
Linux Vs Unix
The Source Code of Linux is freely available to its Users.
The Source Code of Unix is not available for the general public.
Linux primarily uses Graphical User Interface with an optional Command Line Interface.
Unix primarily uses Command Line Interface.
Linux OS is portable and can be executed in different Hard Drives.
Unix is not portable.
Linux is very flexible and can be installed on most of the Home Based Pcs.
Unix has a rigid requirement of the Hardware. Hence, cannot be installed on every other machine.
Linux is mainly used in Home Based PC, Mobile Phones, Desktops, etc.
Unix is mainly used in Server Systems, Mainframes and High-End Computers.
Different Versions of Linux are: Ubuntu, Debian, OpenSuse, Redhat, Solaris, etc.
Different Versions of Unix are: AIS, HP-UX, BSD, Iris, etc.
Linux Installation is economical and doesn’t require much specific and high-end hardware.
Unix Installation is comparatively costlier as it requires more specific hardware circuitry.
The Filesystems supported by Linux are as follows: xfs, ramfs, nfs, vfat, cramfsm ext3, ext4, ext2, ext1, ufs, autofs, devpts, ntfs
The Filesystems supported by Unix are as follows: zfs, js, hfx, gps, xfs, vxfs.
Linux is developed by an active Linux Community worldwide.
Unix is developed by AT&T Developers.
Most commercial versions of UNIX distributions are coded for specific hardware. Like HP-UX for PA-RISC (Hewlett-Packard) and Itanium machines (Intel) and AIX is for Power processors ( IBM ). Since these distributions are limited, the developers can optimise their code for these architectures to get maximum utilisation of resources. Since it uses proprietary hardware, Unix distributions are not cost effective.
HP-UX needs HP or Intel hardware
AIX needs IBM Hardware
Linux operating system is not dependent on the hardware, so it can be installed in any of the server systems which have a processor. Since the developers cannot assume the hardware architecture and they need to prepare the code for some general hardware specifications and that’s why Linux operating system has less performance than the commercial Unix variants.
Linux is open to all hardware
GNU General Public License (GPL), is a form of copyleft and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU Project. Free software projects, although developed through collaboration, are often produced independently of each other. AIX and HP-UX are using proprietary licenses.
Unix (System V)
1982; 36 years ago
Monolithic with dynamically loadable modules
1986; 32 years ago
Monolithic with dynamically loadable modules
Community, Linus Torvalds
Primarily C and assembly
September 17, 1991; 26 years ago
Monolithic (Linux kernel)
GPLv2 and other free and open-source licenses (the name “Linux” is a trademark[b])
Softwares and Tools
Softwares and tools in Linux are general to all hardware. But in the case of Unix, separate tools and software which leverage to get the maximum performance. So the performance of the systems is higher than the Linux operating system by comparing the hardware configuration. Unix has good performance than Linux systems. While considering the cost estimation, Linux will get more votes.
System Management Interface Tool ( SMIT ) with AIX is the tools used for package management, System Administration Manager (SAM) on HP-UX. Linux operating system uses rpm or dpkg etc. based on the variants.
Software Installation and Patch Management
R H Linux
rpm -i file
swinstall –s depot software
installp –a [-c] FileSet
rpm -U/F file
swinstall –s depot software
installp –a FileSet
swlist –l product
lslpp –L all
installp –u FileSet
rpm -q -a
swlist –l product
lslpp –L all
While talking about the file systems, Linux scores more than the other Unix versions. Unix supports two or three file systems locally. But Linux supports almost all the file systems available on any operating system.
The kernel is the core of the operating system and the source code of the kernel are not freely available for the commercial versions of Unix. For the Linux operating system, the users can check and verify the code and even modify it if required.
The commercial versions of Unix come with a license cost. Since these operating systems are purchased, the vendor will provide technical support to the end users to the smooth running of the operating systems.
In the case of the Linux operating system, we need to use the open source forums and community for getting support from the users and developers around the world or hire some freelancers for fixing the issues.